Foro “Desafios del Acceso a la Información Publica en la región” en la UTCD

  El miercoles 3 de diciembre se llevo a cabo el primer Foro “Desafíos del Acceso a la Información Publica…

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El miercoles 3 de diciembre se llevo a cabo el primer Foro “Desafíos del Acceso a la Información Publica en la región. Experiencias, avances y expectativas” a las 19:00 hs en la Universidad Técnica de Comercialización y Desarrollo (UTCD). Estuvieron como panelistas:

– Romy Fischer de Semillas para la Democracia, quien hablara de la experiencia del Grupo Impulsor de Acceso a la Información Pública para la aprobación de la ley;
– Federico Legal, Director General de la Oficina de AIP Ministerio de Justicia y trabajo, quien hablará sobre los desafíos que lleva adelante el Gobierno para la implementación de la ley;
– Renata Terrazas, de la ONG Fundar de México, hablara (vía online) sobre la experiencia de México en la aprobación e implementación de la Ley de Acceso a Información Pública.

El Foro comenzó con la participación de Renata Terrazas, via Skype, investigadora mexicana FUNDAR Centro de Análisis e Investigación. FUNDAR trabaja temas de transparencia y rendición de cuentas, DDHH, análisis de presupuestos y políticas públicas.

Renata comento al público presente cómo se trabajó en México para conseguir promulgar la ley de acceso. En México se comenzó a identificar la necesidad e importancia del acceso a información pública en el año 1977, entendiendo que es un mecanismo para comprender mejor los problemas y asuntos públicos.

La manera de empezar a generar acceso a la información en México fue a través del Poder Judicial. Comentó que un abogado famoso en México empezó a realizar solicitudes de acceso a información pública, relacionadas con el derecho a la verdad.

Sin embargo, no fue hasta el 2002 cuando México tuvo su primera Ley de Transparencia en un estado de la república. Un año después se aprueba la Ley Federal de Transparencia e Información, la cual contenía elementos bastante mas garantistas, y en los siguientes 5 años todos los estados obtuvieron dicha normativa. Así, para el 2007, México contaba con 33 leyes de transparencia.

Resalto que uno de los importantes aciertos en México fue construir órganos garantes con bastante autonomía y facultades para garantizar el derecho a la información.

Luego de la exposición online de Renata, Romy Fischer de Semillas para la Democracia hablo sobre la historia de la historia de la promulgación y aprobación de la Ley 5282/14 de Libre Acceso Ciudadano a la Información Pública y Transparencia Gubernamental.

Consulto a los presentes que entendían y que saben de la Ley, a lo que se escucharon comentarios de que la ley ayuda a que se evite la corrupción, ayuda a realizar un control ciudadano sobre la cosa pública, ayuda a reglamentar la rendición de cuentas por parte de las autoridades, y funciona como una herramienta de la democracia participativa.

Romy menciono que los presentes estaban en lo correcto, y que la Ley es aún mucho más que eso. Comenzó el recorrido histórico mencionando la génesis del Grupo Impulsor de Acceso a la Información Pública (GIAI) en el año 2004, coalición de organizaciones de la sociedad civil, sin personería jurídica, con el objetivo de promover el derecho de acceso a la información en el Paraguay.

Comento que el GIAI no solamente se conformó con realizar incidencia política sino que redacto un proyecto de ley para reglamentar el artículo 28 de la Constitución Nacional que garantiza el derecho de acceso a información.

Hablo sobre las posturas contrarias a la Ley de Acceso, con argumentos (como los de la prensa) de que el texto constitucional ya era suficientemente claro. Por otro lado, hablo del caso de Daniel Vargas Tellez vs. la Municipalidad de San Lorenzo, luego de que la Municipalidad se haya negado en un principio a facilitar a dicho ciudadano la lista de funcionarios para saber cómo se manejaba su municipio. El paradigmático fallo del 15 de octubre de 2013 a favor de Vargas Tellez estableció la innecesariedad de motivar solicitudes de acceso y la gratuidad de las solicitudes, un régimen legal estricto y limitado a excepciones, la obligación del Estado de probar y fundar el daño que se produciría divulgando cierta información reservada, aclarando que en caso de duda deberá favorecerse el acceso a la información.

Este fallo establece principios claros que forjan un antes y un después en el acceso a información pública. Luego de un arduo debate en el Congreso Nacional para que el proyecto de ley del GIAI mantenga los estándares internacionales de una Ley de Acceso a Información Pública, Paraguay se constituye en el país número 100 en contar con dicha ley al ser esta promulgada el 18 de setiembre de 2014.

El ultimo disertante fue Federico Legal, Director General de la Oficina de AIP (Acceso a Información Pública) del Ministerio de Justicia y Trabajo, quien hablo sobre los desafíos del gobierno nacional para implementar la ley de acceso.

Afirmo que al gobierno le corresponde poner en ejercicio la ley, teniendo como primer gran desafío hacer que la ley sea realmente operativa y no sea una cuestión meramente formal. Federico expreso que el gobierno tiene una firme voluntad de generar políticas de acceso a la información para mejorar la calidad de vida de los ciudadanos y ciudadanas.

Informó que la Oficina de AIP tiene la función específica de formular políticas y coordinar planes y programas con otras instituciones del Estado, que posibiliten dotar institucionalidad permanente y sostenible al sistema de acceso a la información. Además señalo que por primera vez en nuestro país se le asigna a un Ministerio la coordinación de estas acciones, teniendo en cuenta su jerarquía e importancia política.

En lo que refiere a las dificultades y desafíos del gobierno para la implementación de la Ley, mencionó el trabajo de coordinar la construcción de una política pública abarcante y seria, el trabajo constante de capacitación a un funcionariado público aun muy ajeno a las nociones de transparencia, documentar acabadamente la gestión pública, promocionar el principio de la transparencia activa y tener en cuenta el derecho comparado.

Proporcionó a la audiencia la referencia de un importante libro, “El acceso a la Información en las sociedades democráticas”, de Guilherme Canela, Asunción, Paraguay 2014, coordinada por la Corte Suprema de Justicia, sobre el acceso a la información Publica en Paraguay, con aportes desde la Justicia a un derecho fundamental para la democracia.

En la brevedad posible se pondrá a disposición un video que resume el primer Foro de Acceso a Información Pública, organizado por Semillas para la Democracia, en el marco de su proyecto “Campaña ciudadana de sensibilización sobre el Acceso a la Información Pública” con apoyo de la Embajada Británica y la Embajada de Canadá.

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